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FANUC Parts Glossary of Terms

FANUC Parts & Terms Glossary


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FANUC and CNC machines are very complicated. Take a moment to learn the basics by reading the Tri Star CNC Services glossary of terms.

Still need help deciphering a FANUC alarm code? Go over different error codes or contact Tri Star experts for FREE phone support at 815-578-9145.


A/D value:
An analog to digital-value. Converts a multilevel analog electrical system pattern into a digital bit.
Abnormal termination of a computer program caused by hardware or software malfunction or operator cancellation.
Absolute Pulse Code System or APC:
A positional information system for servomotors that relies on battery-backed RAM to store encoder pulse counts when the robot is turned off. This system is calibrated when it is turned on.
Analog input.
The difference in value between actual response and desired response in the performance of a controlled machine, system or process. Alarm=Error.
A fixed step-by-step procedure for accomplishing a given result.
Data that are both alphabetical and numeric.
Amperage amount.
The representation of numerical quantities by measurable quantities such as length, voltage or resistance. Also refers to analog type I/O blocks and distinguishes them from discrete I/O blocks.

Numerical data that can vary continuously, for example, voltage levels that can vary within the range of -10 to +10 volts.
An operation that places two contacts or groups of contacts in series. All contacts in series control the resulting status and also mathematical operator.
American National Standard Institute, the U.S. government organization with responsibility for the development and announcement of technical data standards.
Analog output.
Application program:
The set of instructions that defines the specific intended tasks of robots and robot systems to make them reprogrammable and multifunctional. You can initiate and change these programs.
A robot component consisting of an interconnecting set of links and powered joints that move and support the wrist socket and end effector.
Articulated arm:
A robot arm constructed to simulate the human arm, consisting of a series of rotary motions and joints, each powered by a motor.
Abbreviation for American Standard Code for Information Interchange. An 8-level code (7 bits plus 1 parity bit) commonly used for the exchange of data.
Automatic mode:
The robot state in which automatic operation can be initiated.
Automatic operation:
The time during which robots are performing programmed tasks through unattended program execution.
1. A straight line about which a robot joint rotates or moves. 2. One of the reference lines or a coordinate system. 3. A single joint on the robot arm.

A group of connectors mounted at the back of a controller rack to which printed circuit boards are mated.
A unit of pressure equal to 100,000 pascals.
A means of physically separating persons from the restricted work envelope; any physical boundary to a hazard or electrical device/component.
Battery low alarm:
A programmable value (in engineering units) against which the analog input signal automatically is compared on Genius I/O blocks. A fault is indicated if the input value is equal to or less than the low alarm value.
A unit of transmission speed equal to the number of code elements (bits) per second.
A numbering system that uses only 0 and 1.
Contraction of binary digit. 1. The smallest unit of information in the binary numbering system, represented by a 0 or 1. 2. The smallest division of a programmable controller word.
Bits per second.
A storage area in the computer where data is held temporarily until the computer can process it.
A channel along which data can be sent.
Bus controller:
A Genius bus interface board for a programmable controller.
Bus scan:
One complete communications cycle on the serial bus.
Bus Switching Module:
A device that switches a block cluster to one bus or the other of a dual bus.
A sequence of binary digits that can be used to store a value from 0 to 255 and usually operated upon as a unit. Consists of eight bits used to store two numeric or one alpha character.

Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor random-access memory. A read/write memory in which the basic memory cell is a pair of MOS (metal-oxide semiconductor) transistors. It is an implementation of S-RAM that has very low power consumption, but might be less dense than other S-RAM implementations.
The process whereby the joint angle of each axis is calculated from a known reference point.
Cartesian coordinate system:
A coordinate system whose axes (x, y, and z) are three intersecting perpendicular straight lines. The origin is the intersection of the axes.
Cathode ray tube:
A device, like a television set, for displaying information.
Central processing unit:
The main computer component that is made up of a control section and an arithmetic-logic section. The other basic units of a computer system are input/output units and primary storage.
The device along which data flow between the input/output units of a computer and primary storage.
One of a set of elements that can be arranged in ordered groups to express information. Each character has two forms: 1. a man-intelligible form, the graphic, including the decimal digits 0-9, the letters A-Z, punctuation marks, and other formatting and control symbols; 2. a computer intelligible form, the code, consisting of a group of binary digits (bits).
A MOTYPE option in which the robot tool center point moves in an arc defined by three points. These points can be positions or path nodes.
To replace information in a storage unit by zero (or blank, in some machines).
Closed loop:
A control system that uses feedback. An open loop control system does not use feedback.
Computer Numerical Control - refers to a computer controller that reads G-code instructions and drives a machine tool, which is typically used to selectively remove material in the fabrication of components. CNC repair is defined by Tri Star CNC Services, the premiere CNC service, CNC parts and FANUC parts distributor.
Coaxial cable:
A transmission line in which one conductor is centered inside and insulated from an outer metal tube that serves as the second conductor. Also known as coax, coaxial line, coaxial transmission line, concentric cable, concentric line, concentric transmission line.
An inclusive term used to identify a raw material, ingredient, part or subassembly that goes into a higher level of assembly, compound or other item.
A device capable of accepting information, applying prescribed processes to the information, and supplying the results of these processes.
The joint positions of a robot and turn number of wrist that describe the robot at a specified position. Configuration is designated by a STRING value and is included in positional data for the R-J3i B system.
Continuous path:
A trajectory control system that enables the robot arm to move at a constant tip velocity through a series of predefined locations. A rounding effect of the path is required as the tip tries to pass through these locations.
Continuous process control:
The use of transducers (sensors) to monitor a process and make automatic changes in operations through the design of appropriate feedback control loops. While such devices historically have been mechanical or electromechanical, microcomputers and centralized control is now used, as well.
Continuous production:
A production system in which the productive equipment is organized and sequenced according to the steps involved to produce the product. Denotes that material flow is continuous during the production process. The routing of the jobs is fixed and set-ups are seldom changed.
Control unit:
The portion of a computer that directs the automatic operation of the computer, interprets computer instructions, and initiates the proper signals to the other computer circuits to execute instructions.
Control, open-loop:
An operation where the computer applies control directly to the process without manual intervention.
Controlled stop:
A controlled stop controls robot deceleration until it stops. When a safety stop input such as a safety fence signal is opened, the robot decelerates in a controlled manner and then stops. After the robot stops, the Motor Control Contactor opens and drive power is removed.
A hardware unit that contains the power supply, operator controls, control circuitry, and memory that directs the operation and motion of the robot and communications with external devices. See control unit.
Controller memory:
A medium in which data are retained. Primary storage refers to the internal area where the data and program instructions are stored for active use, as opposed to auxiliary or external storage (magnetic tape, disk, diskette, and so forth.)
Coordinate system:
See Cartesian coordinate system.
See central processing unit.
See cathode ray tube.
Cathode ray tube/keyboard. An optional interface device for the R-J3i B robot system. The CRT/KB is used for some robot operations and for entering programs. It can be a remote device that attaches to the robot via a cable.
cycle 1. A sequence of operations that is repeated regularly. The time it takes for one such sequence to occur. 2. The interval of time during which a system or process, such as seasonal demand or a manufacturing operation, periodically returns to similar initial conditions. 3. The interval of time during which an event or set of events is completed. In production control, a cycle is the length of time between the release of a manufacturing order and shipment to the customer or inventory.
An indicator on a teach pendant or CRT display screen at which command entry or editing occurs. The indicator can be a highlighted field or an arrow (> or ^).
Cycle time:
1. In industrial engineering, the time between completion of two discrete units of production. 2. In materials management, the length of time from when material enters a production facility until it exits. See throughput.
Type of work envelope that has two linear major axes and one rotational major axis. Robotic device that has a predominantly cylindrical work envelope due to its design. Typically has fewer than 6 joints and typically has only 1 linear axis.

Dynamic Random Access Memory. A read/write memory in which the basic memory cell is a capacitor. D-RAM tends to have a higher density than S-RAM. Due to the support circuitry required, and power consumption needs, it is generally impractical to use. A battery can be used to retain the content upon loss of power.
D/A converter:
A digital-to-analog converter. A device that transforms digital data into analog data.
D/A value:
A digital-to-analog value. Converts a digital bit pattern into a multilevel analog electrical system.
Daisy Chain:
A means of connecting devices (readers, printers, etc.) to a central processor by party-line input/output buses that join these devices by male and female connectors. The last female connector is shorted by a suitable line termination.
Daisy chain configuration:
A communications link formed by daisy chain connection of twisted pair wire.
A collection of facts, numeric and alphabetical characters, or any representation of information that is suitable for communication and processing.
Data base:
A data file philosophy designed to establish the independence of computer program from data files. Redundancy is minimized and data elements can be added to, or deleted from, the file designs without changing the existing computer programs.
Abbreviation for direct current.
DEADMAN switch:
A control switch on the teach pendant that is used to enable servo power. Pressing the DEADMAN switch while the teach pendant is on activates servo power and releases the robot brakes; releasing the switch deactivates servo power and applies the robot brakes.
The process of detecting, locating and removing mistakes from a computer program, or manufacturing control system. See diagnostic routine.
Deceleration tolerance:
The specification of the percentage of deceleration that must be completed before a motion is considered finished and another motion can begin.
The value, display, function or program automatically selected if you have not specified a choice.
Usually, the absolute difference between a number and the mean of a set of numbers, or between a forecast value and the actual data.
Any type of control hardware, such as an emergency-stop button, selector switch, control pendant, relay, solenoid valve, or sensor.
Diagnostic routine:
A test program used to detect and identify hardware/software malfunctions in the controller and its associated I/O equipment. See debugging.
Information that permits the identification and evaluation of robot and peripheral device conditions.
A description of any data that is expressed in numerical format. Also, having the states On and Off only.
Digital control:
The use of a digital computer to perform processing and control tasks in a manner that is more accurate and less expensive than an analog control system.
Digital signal:
A single point control signal sent to or from the controller. The signal represents one of two states: ON (TRUE, 1. or OFF (FALSE, 0).
A listing of the files stored on a device.
Consisting of individual, distinct entities such as bits, characters, circuits, or circuit components. Also refers to ON/OFF type I/O blocks.
A secondary memory device in which information is stored on a magnetically sensitive, rotating disk.
Disk memory:
A non-programmable, bulk-storage, random-access memory consisting of a magnetized coating on one or both sides of a rotating thin circular plate.
Drive power:
The energy source or sources for the robot servomotors that produce motion.

1. A software mode that allows creation or alteration of a program. 2. To modify the form or format of data, for example, to insert or delete characters.
Emergency stop:
The operation of a circuit using hardware-based components that overrides all other robot controls, removes drive power from the actuators, and causes all moving parts of to stop. The operator panel and teach pendant are each equipped with EMERGENCY STOP buttons.
Enabling device:
A manually operated device that, when continuously activated, permits motion. Releasing the device stops the motion of the robot and associated equipment that might present a hazard.
1. A device within the robot that sends the controller information about where the robot is. 2. A transducer used to convert position data into electrical signals. The robot system uses an incremental optical encoder to provide position feedback for each joint. Velocity data is computed from the encoder signals and used as an additional feedback signal to assure servo stability.
End effector:
An accessory device or tool specifically designed for attachment to the robot wrist or tool mounting plate to enable the robot to perform its intended tasks. Examples include gripper, spot weld gun, arc weld gun, spray paint gun, etc.
End-of-arm tooling:
Any of a number of tools, such as welding guns, torches, bells, paint spraying devices, attached to the faceplate of the robot wrist. Also called end effector or EOAT.
Engineering units:
Units of measure as applied to a process variable, for example, psi, Degrees F., etc.
Envelope, maximum:
The volume of space encompassing the maximum designed movements of all robot parts including the end effector, workpiece, and attachments.
See end of arm tooling, tool.
Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. Semiconductor memory that can be erased and reprogrammed. A non-volatile storage memory.
The difference in value between actual response and desired response in the performance of a controlled machine, system or process. Alarm=Error.
Error message:
A numbered message, displayed on the CRT/KB and teach pendant that indicates a system problem or warns of a potential problem.
A Local Area Network (LAN) bus-oriented, hardware technology that is used to connect computers, printers, terminal concentrators (servers), and many other devices together. It consists of a master cable and connection devices at each machine on the cable that allow the various devices to "talk" to each other. Software that can access the Ethernet and cooperate with machines connected to the cable is necessary. Ethernets come in varieties such as baseband and broadband and can run on different media, such as coax, twisted pair and fiber. Ethernet is a trademark of Xerox Corporation.
To perform a specific operation, such as one that would be accomplished through processing one statement or command, a series of statements or commands, or a complete program or command procedure.
Extended axis:
An optional, servo-controlled axis that provides extended reach capability for a robot, including in-booth rail, single- or double-link arm, also used to control motion of positioning devices.

See Flash ROM.
The tool mounting plate of the robot.
FANUC (Fuji Automatic Numerical Control) is a Japanese electromechanical robotics manufacturer that has partnered with GE to bring automated robotic technology to the US. Tri Star CNC Services is the premiere provider of GE FANUC repairs and GE FANUC parts.
1. The signal or data fed back to a commanding unit from a controlled machine or process to denote its response to the command signal. The signal representing the difference between actual response and desired response that is used by the commanding unit to improve performance of the controlled machine or process. 2. The flow of information back into the control system so that actual performance can be compared with planned performance, for instance in a servo system.
A specified area of a record used for a particular category of data. 2. A group of related items that occupy the same space on a CRT/KB screen or teach pendant LCD screen. Field name is the name of the field; field items are the members of the group.
Field devices:
User-supplied devices that provide information to the PLC (inputs: push buttons, limit switches, relay contacts, an so forth) or perform PLC tasks (outputs: motor starters, solenoids, indicator lights, and so forth.)
1. An organized collection of records that can be stored or retrieved by name. 2. The storage device on which these records are kept, such as bubble memory or disk.
A device to suppress interference that would appear as noise.
Flash File Storage:
A portion of FROM memory that functions as a separate storage device. Any file can be stored on the FROM disk.
Flash ROM:
Flash Read Only Memory. Flash ROM is not battery-backed memory but it is non-volatile. All data in Flash ROM is saved even after you turn off and turn on the robot.
Flow chart:
A systems analysis tool to graphically show a procedure in which symbols are used to represent operations, data, flow, and equipment. See block diagram, process chart.
Flow control:
A specific production control system that is based primarily on setting production rates and feeding work into production to meet the planned rates, then following it through production to make sure that it is moving. This concept is most successful in repetitive production.
To set up or prepare a memory card or floppy disk so it can be used to store data in a specific system.
See Flash ROM.
FROM disk:
See Flash ROM.

General override stat:
A percentage value that governs the maximum robot jog speed and program run speed.
Genius I/O bus:
The serial bus that provides communications between blocks, controllers, and other devices in the system especially with respect to GE FANUC Genius I/O.
The "hand" of a robot that picks up, holds and releases the part or object being handled. Sometimes referred to as a manipulator. See EOAT, tool.
Group signal:
An input/output signal that has a variable number of digital signals, recognized and taken as a group.
See applicator.

Hand Model:
Used in Interference Checking, the Hand Model is the set of virtual model elements (spheres and cylinders) that are used to represent the location and shape of the end of arm tooling with respect to the robot’s faceplate.
To connect electric components with solid metallic wires.
1. Having a fixed wired program or control system built in by the manufacturer and not subject to change by programming. 2. Interconnection of electrical and electronic devices directly through physical wiring.
1. In data processing, the mechanical, magnetic, electrical and electronic devices of which a computer, controller, robot, or panel is built. 2. In manufacturing, relatively standard items such as nuts, bolts, washers, clips, and so forth.
Hazardous motion:
Unintended or unexpected robot motion that can cause injury.
A numbering system having 16 as the base and represented by the digits 0 through 9, and A through F.
A smoothly decelerated stopping of all robot movement and a pause of program execution. Power is maintained on the robot and program execution generally can be resumed from a hold.
Hypertext Markup Language. A markup language that is used to create hypertext and hypermedia documents incorporating text, graphics, sound, video, and hyperlinks.
Hypertext transfer protocol. The protocol used to transfer HTML files between web servers.

Abbreviation for input/output or input/output control.
I/O block:
A microprocessor-based, configurable, rugged solid state device to which field I/O devices are attached.
I/O electrical isolation:
A method of separating field wiring from logic level circuitry. This is typically done through optical isolation devices.
I/O module:
A printed circuit assembly that is the interface between user devices and the Series Six PLC.
I/O scan:
A method by which the CPU monitors all inputs and controls all outputs within a prescribed time. A period during which each device on the bus is given a turn to send information and listen to all of the broadcast data on the bus.
A measure of the total opposition to current flow in an electrical circuit.
Incremental encoder system:
A positional information system for servomotors that requires calibrating the robot by moving it to a known reference position (indicated by limit switches) each time the robot is turned on or calibration is lost due to an error condition.
An integer used to specify the location of information within a table or program.
Index register:
A memory device containing an index.
Industrial robot:
A reprogrammable multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions in order to perform a variety of tasks.
Industrial robot system:
A system that includes industrial robots, end effectors, any equipment devices and sensors required for the robot to perform its tasks, as well as communication interfaces for interlocking, sequencing, or monitoring the robot.
The meaning derived from data that have been arranged and displayed in a way that they relate to that which is already known. See data.
1. Setting all variable areas of a computer program or routine to their desired initial status, generally done the first time the code is executed during each run. 2. A program or hardware circuit that returns a program a system, or hardware device to an original state. See startup, initial.
The data supplied from an external device to a computer for processing. The device used to accomplish this transfer of data.
Input device:
A device such as a terminal keyboard that, through mechanical or electrical action, converts data from the form in which it has been received into electronic signals that can be interpreted by the CPU or programmable controller. Examples are limit switches, push buttons, pressure switches, digital encoders, and analog devices.
Input processing time:
The time required for input data to reach the microprocessor.
Information or signals transferred between devices, discreet electrical signals for external control.
Input/output control:
A technique for controlling capacity where the actual output from a work center is compared with the planned output developed by CRP. The input is also monitored to see if it corresponds with plans so that work centers will not be expected to generate output when jobs are not available to work on.
Integrated circuit:
A solid-state micro-circuit contained entirely within a chip of semiconductor material, generally silicon. Also called chip.
Refers to applications where you communicate with a computer program via a terminal by entering data and receiving responses from the computer.
1. A concept that involves the specifications of the inter-connection between two equipments having different functions. 2. To connects a PLC with the application device, communications channel, and peripherals through various modules and cables. 3. The method or equipment used to communicate between devices.
Interference zone:
An area that falls within the work envelope of a robot, in which there is the potential for the robot motion to coincide with the motion of another robot or machine, and for a collision to occur.
An arrangement whereby the operation of one control or mechanism brings about, or prevents, the operations of another.
A break in the normal flow of a system or program that occurs in a way that the flow can be resumed from that point at a later time. Interrupts are initiated by two types of signals: 1. signals originating within the computer system to synchronize the operation of the computer system with the outside world; 2. signals originating exterior to the computer system to synchronize the operation of the computer system with the outside world.
The International Standards Organization that establishes the ISO interface standards.
1. The ability of a logic circuit having more than one inputs to ensure that each input signal is not affected by any of the others. 2. A method of separating field wiring circuitry from logic level circuitry, typically done optically.
1. A category displayed on the teach pendant on a menu. 2. A set of adjacent digits, bits, or characters that is treated as a unit and conveys a single unit of information. 3. Any unique manufactured or purchased part or assembly: end product, assembly, subassembly, component, or raw material.

Jog coordinate systems:
Coordinate systems that help you to move the robot more effectively for a specific application. These systems include JOINT, WORLD, TOOL, and USER.
A jog coordinate system you define to make the robot jog the best way possible for a specific application. This can be different from world coordinate frame.
Jog speed:
Is a percentage of the maximum speed at which you can jog the robot.
Pressing special keys on the teach pendant to move the robot.
1. A single axis of rotation. There are up to six joints in a robot arm (P-155 swing arm has 8). 2. A jog coordinate system in which one axis is moved at a time.
A motion type in which the robot moves the appropriate combination of axes independently to reach a point most efficiently. (Point to point, non-linear motion).
Joint interpolated motion:
A method of coordinating the movement of the joints so all joints arrive at the desired location at the same time. This method of servo control produces a predictable path regardless of speed and results in the fastest cycle time for a particular move. Also called joint motion.

Abbreviation for kilo, or exactly 1024 in computer jargon. Related to 1024 words of memory.
The programming language developed for robots by the FANUC Robotics America, Inc.

An ordered set of characters used to symbolically identify an instruction, a program, a quantity, or a data area.
See liquid crystal display.
Lead time:
The span of time needed to perform an activity. In the production and inventory control context, this activity is normally the procurement of materials and/or products either from an outside supplier or from one’s own manufacturing facility. Components of lead time can include order preparation time, queue time, move or transportation time, receiving and inspection time.
See Light Emitting Diode.
LED display:
An alphanumeric display that consists of an array of LEDs.
Light Emitting Diode:
A solid-state device that lights to indicate a signal on electronic equipment.
Limit switch:
A switch that is actuated by some part or motion of a machine or equipment to alter the electrical circuit associated with it. It can be used for position detection.
Limiting device:
A device that restricts the work envelope by stopping or causing to stop all robot motion and that is independent of the control program and the application programs.
A motion type in which the appropriate combination of axes move in order to move the robot TCP in a straight line while maintaining tool center point orientation.
Liquid crystal display:
A digital display on the teach pendant that consists of two sheets of glass separated by a sealed-in, normally transparent, liquid crystal material. Abbreviated LCD.
1. The weight (force) applied to the end of the robot arm. 2. A device intentionally placed in a circuit or connected to a machine or apparatus to absorb power and convert it into the desired useful form. 3. To copy programs or data into memory storage.
1. A storage position in memory uniquely specified by an address. 2. The coordinates of an object used in describing its x, y, and z position in a Cartesian coordinate system.
The placement of a lock and/or tag on the energy isolating device (power disconnecting device) in the off or open position. This indicates that the energy isolating device or the equipment being controlled will not be operated until the lock/tag is removed.
A record of values and/or action for a given function.
A fixed set of responses (outputs) to various external conditions (inputs). Also referred to as the program.
The repeated execution of a series of instructions for a fixed number of times, or until interrupted by the operator.

See milliampere.
Machine language:
A language written in a series of bits that are understandable by, and therefore instruct, a computer. This is a "first level" computer language, as compared to a "second level" assembly language, or a "third level" compiler language.
Machine lock:
A test run option that allows the operator to run a program without having the robot move.
A source language instruction from which many machine-language instructions can be generated.
Magnetic disk:
A metal or plastic floppy disk that looks like a phonograph record whose surface can store data in the form of magnetized spots.
Magnetic disk storage:
A storage device or system consisting of magnetically coated metal disks.
Magnetic tape:
Plastic tape, like that used in tape recorder, on which data is stored in the form of magnetized spots.
Keeping the robots and system in their proper operating condition.
See memory card.
Mechanical unit:
The robot arm, including auxiliary axis, and hood/deck and door openers.
medium plural media . The physical substance upon which data is recorded, such as a memory card or floppy disk.
A device or media used to store information in a form that can be retrieved and is understood by the computer or controller hardware. Memory on the R-J3i B system includes C-MOS RAM, Flash ROM and D-RAM.
Memory card:
A C-MOS RAM memory card or a flash disk-based PC card.
A list of options displayed on the teach pendant screen.
A group of words, variable in length, transporting an item of information.
A single integrated circuit that contains the arithmetic, logic, register, control and memory elements of a computer.
One millionth (0.000001) of a second
One one-thousandth of an ampere. Abbreviated mA.
One thousandth of a second. Abbreviated msec.
1. One of several alternative conditions or methods of operation of a device. 2. The most common or frequent value in a group of values.
A distinct and identifiable unit of computer program for such purposes as compiling, loading, and linkage editing. It is eventually combined with other units to form a complete program.
motion type:
A feature that allows you to select how you want the robot to move from one point to the next. MOTYPES include joint, linear, and circular.
A new communications protocol designed to enable connectivity and data sharing between all types of machine tools, allowing setup of a system to remotely control starting/stopping operations and providing setup information on parts, tooling and much more.

1. The interconnection of a number of devices by data communication facilities. "Local networking" is the communications network internal to a robot. "Global networking" is the ability to provide communications connections outside of the robot’s internal system. 2. Connection of geographically separated computers and/or terminals over communications lines. The control of transmission is managed by a standard protocol.
Non-volatile memory:
Memory capable of retaining its stored information when power is turned off.

Obstacle Model:
Used in Interference Checking, the Obstacle Model is the set of virtual model elements (spheres, cylinders, and planes) that are used to represent the shape and the location of a given obstacle in space.
Equipment or devices that are not directly connected to a communications line.
Off-line operations:
Data processing operations that are handled outside of the regular computer program. For example, the computer might generate a report off-line while the computer was doing another job.
Off-line programming:
The development of programs on a computer system that is independent of the "on-board" control of the robot. The resulting programs can be copied into the robot controller memory.
The count value output from a A/D converter resulting from a zero input analog voltage. Used to correct subsequent non-zero measurements also incremental position or frame adjustment value.
A term to describe equipment or devices that are connected to the communications line.
On-line processing:
A data processing approach where transactions are entered into the computer directly, as they occur.
Operating system :
Lowest level system monitor program.
Operating work envelope:
The portion of the restricted work envelope that is actually used by the robot while it is performing its programmed motion. This includes the maximum the end-effector, the workpiece, and the robot itself.
A person designated to start, monitor, and stop the intended productive operation of a robot or robot system.
Operator box:
A control panel that is separate from the robot and is designed as part of the R-J3i B system. It consists of the buttons, switches, and indicator lights needed to operate the system.
Operator panel:
A control panel designed as part of the R-J3i B system and consisting of the buttons, switches, and indicator lights needed to operate the system.
optional features Additional capabilities available at a cost above the base price.
An operation that places two contacts or groups of contacts in parallel. Any of the contacts can control the resultant status, also a mathematical operation.
The attitude of an object in space. Commonly described by three angles: rotation about x (w), rotation about y (p), and rotation about z (r).
The point in a Cartesian coordinate system where axes intersect; the reference point that defines the location of a frame.
See overtravel.
Information that is transferred from the CPU for control of external devices or processes.
Output device:
A device, such as starter motors, solenoids that receive data from the programmable controller.
Output module:
An I/O module that converts logic levels within the CPU to a usable output signal for controlling a machine or process.
Signals, typically on or off, that controls external devices based upon commands from the CPU.
See general override.
A condition that occurs when the motion of a robot axis exceeds its prescribed limits.
To replace the contents of one file with the contents of another file when copying.

The anticipated state, odd or even, of a set of binary digits.
Parity :
Check that tests whether the number of ones (or zeros) in an array of binary digits is odd or even.
Parity bit:
A binary digit added to an array of bits to make the sum of all bits always odd or always even.
Parity error:
A condition that occurs when a computed parity check does not agree with the parity bit.
A material item that is used as a component and is not an assembly or subassembly.
A unit of pressure in the meter-kilogram-second system equivalent to one newton per square meter.
1. A variable type available in the KAREL system that consists of a list of positions. Each node includes positional information and associated data. 2. The trajectory followed by the TCP in a move.
PC Interface:
The PC Interface software uses Ethernet connections to provide file transfer protocol (FTP) functions, PC send macros, telnet interface, TCP/IP interface web server functions, and host communications.
See printed circuit board.
See teach pendant.
See programmable logic controller or cell controller.
The programmable machine controller (PMC) functions provide a ladder logic programming environment to create PMC functions. This provides the capability to use the robot I/O system to run PLC programs in the background of normal robot operations. This function can be used to control bulk supply systems, fixed automation that is part of the robot workcell, or other devices that would normally require basic PLC controls.
Printed circuit board:
A flat board whose front contains slots for integrated circuit chips and connections for a variety of electronic components, and whose back is printed with electrically conductive pathways between the components.
Production mode:
See automatic mode.
1. A plan for the solution of a problem. A complete program includes plans for the transcription of data, coding for the computer, and plans for the absorption of the results into the system. 2. A sequence of instructions to be executed by the computer or controller to control a robot/robot system. 3. To furnish a computer with a code of instructions. 4. To teach a robot system a specific set of movements and instructions to do a task.
Program ToolBox:
The Program ToolBox software provides programming utilities such as mirror image and flip wrist editing capabilities.
Programmable controller:
See programmable logic controller or cell controller.
Programmable logic controller:
A solid-state industrial control device that receives inputs from user-supplied control devices, such as switches and sensors, implements them in a precise pattern determined by ladder diagram-based programs stored in the user memory, and provides outputs for control of processes or user-supplied devices such as relays and motor starters.
A set of hardware and software interfaces in a terminal or computer that allows it to transmit over a communications network, and that collectively forms a communications language.
Pounds per square inch.

1. Waiting lines resulting from temporary delays in providing service. 2. The amount of time a job waits at a work center before set-up or work is performed on the job. See also job queue.

See Random Access Memory.
Random access:
A term that describes files that do not have to be searched sequentially to find a particular record but can be addressed directly.
Random Access Memory:
1. Volatile, solid-state memory used for storage of programs and locations; battery backup is required. 2. The working memory of the controller. Programs and variable data must be loaded into RAM before the program can execute or the data can be accessed by the program.
1. A characterization of a variable or function. All the values that a function can possess. 2. In statistics, the spread in a series of observations. 3. A programmable voltage or current spectrum of values to which input or output analog signals can be limited.
To copy, usually from one form of storage to another, particularly from external or secondary storage to internal storage. To sense the meaning of arrangements of hardware. To sense the presence of information on a recording medium.
Read Only Memory:
A digital memory containing a fixed pattern of bits that you cannot alter.
To store the current set or sets of information on a storage device.
The restoration of normal processing after a hardware or software malfunction through detailed procedures for file backup, file restoration, and transaction logging.
1. A special section of primary storage in a computer where data is held while it is being worked on. 2. A memory device capable of containing one or more computer bits or words.
A device connection to a given computer, with remote devices being attached over communications lines and local devices attached directly to a computer channel; in a network, the computer can be a remote device to the CPU controlling the network.
To restore robots and robot systems to operating condition after damage, malfunction, or wear.
The closeness of agreement among the number of consecutive movements made by the robot arm to a specific point.
To return a register or storage location to zero or to a specified initial condition.
Restricted work envelope. :
That portion of the work envelope to which a robot is restricted by limiting devices that establish limits that will not be exceeded in the event of any reasonably foreseeable failure of the robot or its controls. The maximum distance the robot can travel after the limited device is actuated defines the restricted work envelope of the robot.
Robot input.
Robotic Industries Association Subcommittee of the American National Standards Institute, Inc.
Robot output.
A reprogrammable multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices, through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks.
Robot Model:
Used in Interference Checking, the Robot Model is the set of virtual model elements (sphere and cylinders) that are used to represent the location and shape of the robot arm with respect to the robot’s base. Generally, the structure of a six axes robot can be accurately modeled as a series of cylinders and spheres. Each model element represents a link or part of the robot arm.
See Read Only Memory.
1. A list of coded instructions in a program. 2. A series of computer instructions that performs a specific task and can be executed as often as needed during program execution.

A read/write memory in which the basic memory cell is a transistor. S-RAM tends to have a lower density than D-RAM. A battery can be used to retain the content upon loss of power.
Saving data:
Storing program data in Flash ROM, to a floppy disk, or memory card.
Scratch start:
Allows you to enable and disable the automatic recovery function.
A device that responds to physical stimuli, such as heat, light, sound pressure, magnetism, or motion, and transmits the resulting signal or data for providing a measurement, operating a control or both. Also a device that is used to measure or adjust differences in voltage in order to control sophisticated machinery dynamically.
Serial communication:
A method of data transfer within a PLC whereby the bits are handled sequentially rather than simultaneously as in parallel transmission.
Serial interface:
A method of data transmission that permits transmitting a single bit at a time through a single line. Used where high speed input is not necessary.
Server Side Include (SSI):
A method of calling or "including" code into a web page.
Servomotor or APC Motor:
An electric motor that is controlled to produce precision motion. Also called a "smart" motor.
System input.
The event, phenomenon, or electrical quantity that conveys information from one point to another.
Significant bit:
A bit that contributes to the precision of a number. These are counted starting with the bit that contributes the most value, of "most significant bit," and ending with the bit that contributes the least value, or "least significant bit."
Slip sheet:
A sheet of material placed between certain layers of a unit load. Also known as tier sheet.
System output.
Specific gravity:
The ratio of a mass of solid or liquid to the mass of an equal volume of water at 45C. You must know the specific gravity of the dispensing material to perform volume signal calibration. The specific gravity of a dispensing material is listed on the MSDS for that material.
Standard Operator Panel (SOP):
A panel that is made up of buttons, keyswitches, and connector ports.
The on or off condition of current to and from and input or output device.
See instruction.
Storage device:
Any device that can accept, retain, and read back one or more times. The available storage devices are S-RAM, Flash ROM (FROM or F-ROM), floppy disks, and memory cards.
System variable:
An element that stores data used by the R-J3i B system to indicate such things as robot specifications, application requirements, and the current status of the system.

The difference between the gross weight of an object and its contents, and the object itself. The weight of an object without its contents.
See tool center point.
Teach mode:
1. The mode of operation in which a robot is instructed in its motions, usually by guiding it through these motions using a teach pendant. 2. The generation and storage of positional data. Positional data can be taught using the teach pendant to move the robot through a series of positions and recording those positions for use by an application program.
Teach pendant:
1. A hand-held device used to instruct a robot, specifying the character and types of motions it is to undertake. Also known as teach box, teach gun. 2. A portable device, consisting of an LCD display and a keypad that serves as a user interface to the KAREL system and attaches to the operator box or operator panel via a cable. The teach pendant is used for robot operations such as jogging the robot, teaching and recording positions, and testing and debugging programs.
Generating and storing a series of positional data points affected by moving the robot arm through a path of intended motions.
The method of transmission of measurements made by an instrument or a sensor to a remote location.
Termination type:
Feature that controls the blending of robot motion between segments.
A term used loosely to define something mounted on the end of the robot arm, for example, a hand, gripper, or an arc welding torch.
Tool center point:
1. The location on the end-effector or tool of a robot hand whose position and orientation define the coordinates of the controlled object. 2. Reference point for position control, that is, the point on the tool that is used to teach positions. Abbreviated TCP.
TOOL Frame:
The Cartesian coordinate system that has the position of the TCP as its origin to stet. The z-axis of the tool frame indicates the approach vector for the tool.
See teach pendant.
A device for converting energy from one form to another.

See user operator panel.
Universal Resource Locator. A standard addressing scheme used to locate or reference files on web servers.
USER Frame:
The Cartesian coordinate system that you can define for a specific application. The default value of the User Frame is the World Frame. All positional data is recorded relative to User Frame.
User Operator Panel:
User-supplied control device used in place of or in parallel with the operator panel or operator box supplied with the controller. Abbreviated UOP.

A quantity that can assume any of a given set of values.
The difference between the expected (or planned) and the actual, also statistics definitions.
Vision system:
A device that collects data and forms an image that can be interpreted by a robot computer to determine the position or to "see" an object.
Volatile memory:
Memory that will lose the information stored in it if power is removed from the memory circuit device.

Warning device:
An audible or visible device used to alert personnel to potential safety hazards.
Web server:
An application that allows you to access files on the robot using a standard web browser.
Work envelope:
The volume of space that encloses the maximum designed reach of the robot manipulator including the end effector, the workpiece, and the robot itself. The work envelope can be reduced or restricted by limiting devices. The maximum distance the robot can travel after the limit device is actuated is considered the basis for defining the restricted work envelope.
To deliver data to a medium such as storage.
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